Theoretical and jurisprudential approach of the Anglo – American and the Greek Law position -

Θεωρητική και νομολογιακή προσέγγιση της θέσης του Άγγλο-Αμερικανικού και του Ελληνικού δικαίου

 

‘Εκδοση στην αγγλική γλώσσα

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Έκδοση: 2019
ISBN: 978-960-622-759-2
Σελίδες: 336
Συγγραφέας: Λ. Ζυγούρος
Διεύθυνση Σειράς: Λ. Αθανασίου

This book relates to the existence and the material effect of the occurrence of unexpected, accidental or exceptional events in the contract of affreightment or in the contract of carriage by sea. Even if the parties show due diligence, they cannot be sure that the charter contract will be performed, undisturbed, within the agreed time plan. Unpredictable events such as wars, requisition or destruction of the ship, supervening hardship of performance, may, under certain conditions, render the execution of the contract impracticable or hinder the performance of the charterparty substantially.

The aim is to confine the analysis of unexpected circumstances and their effect only on carriage of goods by sea under either a bill of lading or a charterparty. The link between a contract of carriage of goods by sea and the concept of unexpected circumstances will be reviewed extensively. Their influence on the performance of the contract, after its formation, is significant given the fact that they obstruct or substantially delay the normal performance of the existing contractual obligations. Their appearance to the “life of a contract” is usually accompanied by outstanding issues, which arise because of impossibility, frustration or impracticability, the most famous of which is the commonly used term of “frustration of contract”. These problems, the analysis of which presupposes a case-by-case approach, require considerable attention.

Hence, in light of these initial remarks, the intention is to enlighten both practitioners and law students on the issue in question and to highlight the pivotal role of maritime law jurisprudence as pertaining to the development of the “doctrine of frustration” as a method for allocating the loss by the occurrence of unexpected, accidental or exceptional events. The core of the research is analysed as follows: How does the “doctrine of frustration” operate in the field of maritime law? Moreover, under what circumstances comes into play and what is its effect on the contract?

Τhe main objective, firstly, includes both a scrutiny and an evaluation of the maritime law findings and, secondly, questions the scope of the “doctrine of frustration” and its limitations. At the end of each and every chapter extensive comments are made on the case law elaborating and clarifying the issues as they arise.

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Το παρόν έργο στην αγγλική γλώσσα αποτελεί τον τρίτο τόμο της σειράς Μελέτες Ναυτικού Δικαίου υπό την Διεύθυνση της Καθηγήτριας Νομικής Σχολής Αθηνών Λ. Αθανασίου. Το βιβλίο σχετίζεται με την ύπαρξη και το ουσιαστικό αποτέλεσμα της επέλευσης απροσδόκητων, τυχαίων ή έκτακτων γεγονότων στη σύμβαση της ναύλωσης ή στη θαλάσσια μεταφορά. Ακόμη και αν οι συμβαλλόμενοι επιδείξουν τη δέουσα επιμέλεια, δεν μπορούν να είναι σίγουροι ότι η ναύλωση θα εκτελεστεί απρόσκοπτα εντός του συμφωνηθέντος χρονοδιαγράμματος. Απρόβλεπτα γεγονότα, όπως οι πόλεμοι, η επίταξη ή η καταστροφή του πλοίου, η επιγενόμενη δυσκολία εκτέλεσης της σύμβασης, μπορούν, υπό συγκεκριμένες προϋποθέσεις, να καταστήσουν την εκτέλεση της σύμβασης της ναύλωσης ανέφικτη ή να παρεμποδίσουν σημαντικά την εκτέλεσή της. Το έργο συνοδεύεται από σύντομο αλφαβητικό ευρετήριο.

 

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  • PREFACE1
  • 1. Preliminary observations1
  • 2. Delineating the problem2
  • 3. The aim and the method of the book4
  • 3.1. The aim5
  • 3.2. The method5
  • PART 19
  • The application of the doctrine of frustration in Anglo - American Maritime Law9
  • Chapter 19
  • Unexpected circumstances and common law9
  • 4. Introductory remarks on English Law9
  • 5. English Law12
  • 5.1. The “Paradine v. Jane” rule12
  • 5.1.1. Case law13
  • 5.2. The “Taylor v. Caldwell” rule14
  • 6. Jurisprudential development of the rule16
  • 6.1. Other Common Law Jurisdictions17
  • 6.2. Mixed Jurisdictions17
  • 7. American Law18
  • 7.1. Impracticability or “commercial impracticability” 19
  • 7.2. “Frustration of purpose”21
  • Chapter 223
  • Observations of the “doctrine of frustration”23
  • 8. Defining the concept 23
  • 8.1. General principles of the “doctrine of frustration”24
  • 8.2. Contractual provisions28
  • 8.2.1. Frustration and “force majeure”29
  • 8.2.2. An overview of the “force majeure” clauses30
  • 8.2.3. The Frustration Clause in Marine Insurance32
  • 8.2.4. The War clauses33
  • 8.3. The legal basis33
  • 8.3.1. Fact or Law?33
  • 8.3.2. The theories of the “doctrine of frustration”35
  • 8.3.3. Any practical importance? 37
  • 9. Notes on terminology37
  • 10. American Law39
  • Chapter 343
  • “Impracticability” and “Frustration of purpose”43
  • 11. Introductory remarks43
  • 12. The American and English approach of impracticability43
  • 12.1. Articles §2-613 and §2-615 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) 47
  • 12.1.1. Article UCC §2-61348
  • 12.1.2. Article UCC §2-61548
  • 12.2. The Restatement (Second) of Contracts51
  • 12.2.1. Discharge by Supervening Impracticability51
  • 12.2.2. Discharge by Supervening Frustration52
  • 12.2.3. Existing Impracticability or Frustration54
  • 13. The “Frustration of purpose”55
  • 13.1. What is it?55
  • 13.2. English Law57
  • 13.2.1. “The Krell”57
  • 13.2.2. “The Herne”58
  • 13.2.3. The difference of opinion58
  • 13.2.3.1. Criticism of the Krell v. Herny59
  • 13.2.3.2. Support of the Krell v. Herny60
  • Chapter 462
  • Destruction of the subject matter and temporary impossibility62
  • 14. Introductory remarks62
  • 14.1. Destruction of the vessel64
  • 14.1.1. American Law67
  • 14.2. Destruction of a thing essential for performance69
  • 14.2.1. American Law74
  • 14.3. Damage, deterioration, destruction74
  • 14.3.1. Damage to a ship74
  • 14.3.2. Serious damage and deterioration of the cargo77
  • 14.3.3. Destruction of the cargo 79
  • 14.3.4. American Law 80
  • 14.4. Temporary impossibility82
  • 14.4.1. American Law83
  • Chapter 585
  • Unavailability of the subject matter85
  • 15. Introductory remarks85
  • 16. Types of unavailability85
  • 16.1. Requisition of the vessel 85
  • 16.1.1. American Law87
  • 16.2. Statutory Definition87
  • 16.2.1. American Law88
  • 16.3. English Law88
  • 16.3.1. Concluding comments91
  • 16.3.1.1. American Law95
  • 16.3.2. Compensation96
  • 16.3.2.1. American Law97
  • 16.3.3. The effect of the requisition to the charterparty98
  • 16.3.3.1. Concluding comments on the cases100
  • 16.3.3.2. Concluding comments on the effect of the requisition105
  • 16.3.3.3. American Law106
  • 16.3.4. Detention of the vessel due to wartime106
  • 16.3.4.1. English Law107
  • 16.3.4.1.1. Concluding comments 109
  • 16.3.5. Detention by the port authorities113
  • 16.3.5.1. Concluding comments114
  • 16.3.6. Strike at the port of loading115
  • 16.3.6.1. Concluding comments116
  • 16.3.6.2. American Law119
  • 16.3.7. Piracy119
  • 17. Prospective frustration120
  • 17.1. American Law122
  • Chapter 6124
  • Method of performance124
  • 18. Introductory remarks124
  • 19. The Suez Canal cases126
  • 19.1. Contracts of sale (c.i.f. contract)126
  • 19.1.1. English Law126
  • 19.1.2. Concluding comments127
  • 19.1.2.1. Concluding comments on “The Tsakiroglou”131
  • 19.2. Carriage of goods by sea133
  • 19.2.1. English Law133
  • 19.2.2. Concluding comments133
  • 19.2.3. American Law135
  • 19.2.4. Concluding comments136
  • 19.3. The Baltic Suez Clause138
  • 20. The legal evaluation of the closure of the Panama Canal138
  • 21. The legal evaluation of the closure of the Straits of Hormuz, of Dardanelles, of Bosporus, and of Kerch (Sea of Azov)139
  • 21.1. The closure of the Straits of Hormuz139
  • 21.2. The closure of the Straits of Dardanelles, of Bosporus and of Kerch (Sea of Azov)141
  • Chapter 7144
  • Transaction with the enemy144
  • 22. Introductory remarks144
  • 23. Trading with enemy (a common law rule)146
  • 23.1. Types of War146
  • 23.2. “The enemy”149
  • 23.2.1. The Statutory definition in English Law149
  • 23.2.2. English Law149
  • 23.2.2.1. Individuals149
  • 23.2.2.2. Legal entities152
  • 23.2.2.3. Concluding comments154
  • 23.2.3. The Statutory definition in American Law157
  • 23.2.3.1. American Law157
  • 23.2.3.2. Concluding comments162
  • 23.2.4. The Statutory definition in Greek Law162
  • 23.2.4.1. Greek Law162
  • 23.2.4.2. Concluding comments164
  • 23.3. “To trade”165
  • 23.3.1. English Law165
  • 23.3.2. American Law167
  • 24. The effect of war on contracts168
  • 25. The effect of the “prohibition” principle on a contract of affreightment170
  • 25.1. Concluding comments174
  • Chapter 8177
  • The limits of the “doctrine of frustration”177
  • 26. Introductory remarks177
  • 27. “Self – induced” frustration177
  • 27.1. English Law177
  • 27.2. Concluding comments181
  • 28. American Law189
  • Chapter 9190
  • The legal effects of the “doctrine of frustration”190
  • 29. Introductory remarks190
  • 30. The Common law approach190
  • 31. The Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943193
  • 32. American Law195
  • PART 2199
  • The impossibility of performance in Greek Maritime Law199
  • Chapter 10199
  • General observations of the impossibility of performance199
  • 33. Introductory remarks199
  • 34. The regulatory framework of the Greek Civil Code200
  • 35. The regulatory framework of the Greek Code of Private Maritime Law 200
  • 36. Synopsis of other European Legislations202
  • 36.1. The German Maritime Code202
  • 36.2. The Nordic Maritime Code205
  • 36.3. The Italian Maritime Code207
  • 36.4. French Law207
  • 36.5. The Dutch Civil Code208
  • 36.6. The Maritime Code of Latvia208
  • 36.7. The Maritime Code of Spain209
  • Chapter 11211
  • Unexpected circumstances and commencement of the voyage211
  • 37. Introductory remarks211
  • 38. Prior to the commencement of the voyage211
  • 38.1. Time of occurrence211
  • 38.2. The nature of the events213
  • 38.3. Incidents that affect the vessel214
  • 38.3.1. Accidental loss214
  • 38.3.2. “Became unseaworthy”216
  • 38.3.3. Capture and plunder218
  • 38.3.4. Requisition219
  • 38.3.5. Obstruction to sail by the order of a state221
  • 38.4. Incidents that make performance impossible223
  • 38.4.1. Blockade of the port of destination223
  • 38.4.2. “Or otherwise prevention of navigation with the vessel”226
  • 38.5. Consequences228
  • 39. After the commencement of the voyage229
  • 39.1. Time of occurrence230
  • 39.2. Distance Freight231
  • Chapter 12235
  • Unexpected circumstances and the necessity for repairs to the vessel235
  • 40. Introductory remarks235
  • 41. The divergence of views regarding rescission (ipanaxorisi) and termination (kataggelia) in the Greek theory236
  • 41.1. Criticism and the preferred view240
  • 42. The nature of the events246
  • 42.1. Repairs and temporary interruption of the voyage249
  • 42.2. Excessive length of the impediment251
  • 43. Consequences254
  • 44. Introductory remarks255
  • Chapter 13255
  • Accidental loss of the goods prior or after the loading or after the receipt of goods for loading or after the commencement of the voyage255
  • 45. Accidental loss of the goods prior to the receipt or prior to the loading255
  • 46. Accidental loss of the goods after the receipt or after the loading and before the sailing of the vessel259
  • 47. Delivery of new cargo259
  • 48. Accidental loss after the commencement of the voyage264
  • Chapter 14266
  • Rights and liabilities of the parties in case of an accidental discharge of the charter266
  • 49. Introductory remarks266
  • 50. The dissolution of the contract at the preliminary voyage 266
  • 51. Expenses after the dissolution of the contract269
  • Chapter 15271
  • Rights and obligations of the owner after the dissolution of the charter271
  • 52. Introductory remarks271
  • 53. The diligence of the prudent owner271
  • 54. The owner is entitled and obliged to send, store, pledge or sell the cargo 275
  • 55. General average and contribution277
  • 56. English Law277
  • 57. American Law278
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY279
  • A. BOOKS, ARTICLES and MONOGRAPHS279
  • B. CASE LAW291
  • INDEX313
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