Theoretical and jurisprudential approach of the Anglo – American and the Greek Law position -

Θεωρητική και νομολογιακή προσέγγιση της θέσης του Άγγλο-Αμερικανικού και του Ελληνικού δικαίου

 

‘Εκδοση στην αγγλική γλώσσα

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Έκδοση: 2019
ISBN: 978-960-622-759-2
Σελίδες: 336
Συγγραφέας: Λ. Ζυγούρος
Διεύθυνση Σειράς: Λ. Αθανασίου

This book relates to the existence and the material effect of the occurrence of unexpected, accidental or exceptional events in the contract of affreightment or in the contract of carriage by sea. Even if the parties show due diligence, they cannot be sure that the charter contract will be performed, undisturbed, within the agreed time plan. Unpredictable events such as wars, requisition or destruction of the ship, supervening hardship of performance, may, under certain conditions, render the execution of the contract impracticable or hinder the performance of the charterparty substantially.

The aim is to confine the analysis of unexpected circumstances and their effect only on carriage of goods by sea under either a bill of lading or a charterparty. The link between a contract of carriage of goods by sea and the concept of unexpected circumstances will be reviewed extensively. Their influence on the performance of the contract, after its formation, is significant given the fact that they obstruct or substantially delay the normal performance of the existing contractual obligations. Their appearance to the “life of a contract” is usually accompanied by outstanding issues, which arise because of impossibility, frustration or impracticability, the most famous of which is the commonly used term of “frustration of contract”. These problems, the analysis of which presupposes a case-by-case approach, require considerable attention.

Hence, in light of these initial remarks, the intention is to enlighten both practitioners and law students on the issue in question and to highlight the pivotal role of maritime law jurisprudence as pertaining to the development of the “doctrine of frustration” as a method for allocating the loss by the occurrence of unexpected, accidental or exceptional events. The core of the research is analysed as follows: How does the “doctrine of frustration” operate in the field of maritime law? Moreover, under what circumstances comes into play and what is its effect on the contract?

Τhe main objective, firstly, includes both a scrutiny and an evaluation of the maritime law findings and, secondly, questions the scope of the “doctrine of frustration” and its limitations. At the end of each and every chapter extensive comments are made on the case law elaborating and clarifying the issues as they arise.

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Το παρόν έργο στην αγγλική γλώσσα αποτελεί τον τρίτο τόμο της σειράς Μελέτες Ναυτικού Δικαίου υπό την Διεύθυνση της Καθηγήτριας Νομικής Σχολής Αθηνών Λ. Αθανασίου. Το βιβλίο σχετίζεται με την ύπαρξη και το ουσιαστικό αποτέλεσμα της επέλευσης απροσδόκητων, τυχαίων ή έκτακτων γεγονότων στη σύμβαση της ναύλωσης ή στη θαλάσσια μεταφορά. Ακόμη και αν οι συμβαλλόμενοι επιδείξουν τη δέουσα επιμέλεια, δεν μπορούν να είναι σίγουροι ότι η ναύλωση θα εκτελεστεί απρόσκοπτα εντός του συμφωνηθέντος χρονοδιαγράμματος. Απρόβλεπτα γεγονότα, όπως οι πόλεμοι, η επίταξη ή η καταστροφή του πλοίου, η επιγενόμενη δυσκολία εκτέλεσης της σύμβασης, μπορούν, υπό συγκεκριμένες προϋποθέσεις, να καταστήσουν την εκτέλεση της σύμβασης της ναύλωσης ανέφικτη ή να παρεμποδίσουν σημαντικά την εκτέλεσή της. Το έργο συνοδεύεται από σύντομο αλφαβητικό ευρετήριο.

 

  • 0
  • PREFACE23
  • 1. Preliminary observations23
  • 2. Delineating the problem24
  • 3. The aim and the method of the book26
  • 3.1. The aim27
  • 3.2. The method27
  • PART 131
  • The application of the doctrine of frustration in Anglo - American Maritime Law31
  • Chapter 131
  • Unexpected circumstances and common law31
  • 4. Introductory remarks on English Law31
  • 5. English Law34
  • 5.1. The “Paradine v. Jane” rule34
  • 5.1.1. Case law35
  • 5.2. The “Taylor v. Caldwell” rule36
  • 6. Jurisprudential development of the rule38
  • 6.1. Other Common Law Jurisdictions39
  • 6.2. Mixed Jurisdictions39
  • 7. American Law40
  • 7.1. Impracticability or “commercial impracticability” 41
  • 7.2. “Frustration of purpose”43
  • Chapter 245
  • Observations of the “doctrine of frustration”45
  • 8. Defining the concept 45
  • 8.1. General principles of the “doctrine of frustration”46
  • 8.2. Contractual provisions50
  • 8.2.1. Frustration and “force majeure”51
  • 8.2.2. An overview of the “force majeure” clauses52
  • 8.2.3. The Frustration Clause in Marine Insurance54
  • 8.2.4. The War clauses55
  • 8.3. The legal basis55
  • 8.3.1. Fact or Law?55
  • 8.3.2. The theories of the “doctrine of frustration”57
  • 8.3.3. Any practical importance? 59
  • 9. Notes on terminology59
  • 10. American Law61
  • Chapter 365
  • “Impracticability” and “Frustration of purpose”65
  • 11. Introductory remarks65
  • 12. The American and English approach of impracticability65
  • 12.1. Articles §2-613 and §2-615 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) 69
  • 12.1.1. Article UCC §2-61370
  • 12.1.2. Article UCC §2-61570
  • 12.2. The Restatement (Second) of Contracts73
  • 12.2.1. Discharge by Supervening Impracticability73
  • 12.2.2. Discharge by Supervening Frustration74
  • 12.2.3. Existing Impracticability or Frustration76
  • 13. The “Frustration of purpose”77
  • 13.1. What is it?77
  • 13.2. English Law79
  • 13.2.1. “The Krell”79
  • 13.2.2. “The Herne”80
  • 13.2.3. The difference of opinion80
  • 13.2.3.1. Criticism of the Krell v. Herny81
  • 13.2.3.2. Support of the Krell v. Herny82
  • Chapter 484
  • Destruction of the subject matter and temporary impossibility84
  • 14. Introductory remarks84
  • 14.1. Destruction of the vessel86
  • 14.1.1. American Law89
  • 14.2. Destruction of a thing essential for performance91
  • 14.2.1. American Law96
  • 14.3. Damage, deterioration, destruction96
  • 14.3.1. Damage to a ship96
  • 14.3.2. Serious damage and deterioration of the cargo99
  • 14.3.3. Destruction of the cargo 101
  • 14.3.4. American Law 102
  • 14.4. Temporary impossibility104
  • 14.4.1. American Law105
  • Chapter 5107
  • Unavailability of the subject matter107
  • 15. Introductory remarks107
  • 16. Types of unavailability107
  • 16.1. Requisition of the vessel 107
  • 16.1.1. American Law109
  • 16.2. Statutory Definition109
  • 16.2.1. American Law110
  • 16.3. English Law110
  • 16.3.1. Concluding comments113
  • 16.3.1.1. American Law117
  • 16.3.2. Compensation118
  • 16.3.2.1. American Law119
  • 16.3.3. The effect of the requisition to the charterparty120
  • 16.3.3.1. Concluding comments on the cases122
  • 16.3.3.2. Concluding comments on the effect of the requisition127
  • 16.3.3.3. American Law128
  • 16.3.4. Detention of the vessel due to wartime128
  • 16.3.4.1. English Law129
  • 16.3.4.1.1. Concluding comments 131
  • 16.3.5. Detention by the port authorities135
  • 16.3.5.1. Concluding comments136
  • 16.3.6. Strike at the port of loading137
  • 16.3.6.1. Concluding comments138
  • 16.3.6.2. American Law141
  • 16.3.7. Piracy141
  • 17. Prospective frustration142
  • 17.1. American Law144
  • Chapter 6146
  • Method of performance146
  • 18. Introductory remarks146
  • 19. The Suez Canal cases148
  • 19.1. Contracts of sale (c.i.f. contract)148
  • 19.1.1. English Law148
  • 19.1.2. Concluding comments149
  • 19.1.2.1. Concluding comments on “The Tsakiroglou”153
  • 19.2. Carriage of goods by sea155
  • 19.2.1. English Law155
  • 19.2.2. Concluding comments155
  • 19.2.3. American Law157
  • 19.2.4. Concluding comments158
  • 19.3. The Baltic Suez Clause160
  • 20. The legal evaluation of the closure of the Panama Canal160
  • 21. The legal evaluation of the closure of the Straits of Hormuz, of Dardanelles, of Bosporus, and of Kerch (Sea of Azov)161
  • 21.1. The closure of the Straits of Hormuz161
  • 21.2. The closure of the Straits of Dardanelles, of Bosporus and of Kerch (Sea of Azov)163
  • Chapter 7166
  • Transaction with the enemy166
  • 22. Introductory remarks166
  • 23. Trading with enemy (a common law rule)168
  • 23.1. Types of War168
  • 23.2. “The enemy”171
  • 23.2.1. The Statutory definition in English Law171
  • 23.2.2. English Law171
  • 23.2.2.1. Individuals171
  • 23.2.2.2. Legal entities174
  • 23.2.2.3. Concluding comments176
  • 23.2.3. The Statutory definition in American Law179
  • 23.2.3.1. American Law179
  • 23.2.3.2. Concluding comments184
  • 23.2.4. The Statutory definition in Greek Law184
  • 23.2.4.1. Greek Law184
  • 23.2.4.2. Concluding comments186
  • 23.3. “To trade”187
  • 23.3.1. English Law187
  • 23.3.2. American Law189
  • 24. The effect of war on contracts190
  • 25. The effect of the “prohibition” principle on a contract of affreightment192
  • 25.1. Concluding comments196
  • Chapter 8199
  • The limits of the “doctrine of frustration”199
  • 26. Introductory remarks199
  • 27. “Self – induced” frustration199
  • 27.1. English Law199
  • 27.2. Concluding comments203
  • 28. American Law211
  • Chapter 9212
  • The legal effects of the “doctrine of frustration”212
  • 29. Introductory remarks212
  • 30. The Common law approach212
  • 31. The Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943215
  • 32. American Law217
  • PART 2221
  • The impossibility of performance in Greek Maritime Law221
  • Chapter 10221
  • General observations of the impossibility of performance221
  • 33. Introductory remarks221
  • 34. The regulatory framework of the Greek Civil Code222
  • 35. The regulatory framework of the Greek Code of Private Maritime Law 222
  • 36. Synopsis of other European Legislations224
  • 36.1. The German Maritime Code224
  • 36.2. The Nordic Maritime Code227
  • 36.3. The Italian Maritime Code229
  • 36.4. French Law229
  • 36.5. The Dutch Civil Code230
  • 36.6. The Maritime Code of Latvia230
  • 36.7. The Maritime Code of Spain231
  • Chapter 11233
  • Unexpected circumstances and commencement of the voyage233
  • 37. Introductory remarks233
  • 38. Prior to the commencement of the voyage233
  • 38.1. Time of occurrence233
  • 38.2. The nature of the events235
  • 38.3. Incidents that affect the vessel236
  • 38.3.1. Accidental loss236
  • 38.3.2. “Became unseaworthy”238
  • 38.3.3. Capture and plunder240
  • 38.3.4. Requisition241
  • 38.3.5. Obstruction to sail by the order of a state243
  • 38.4. Incidents that make performance impossible245
  • 38.4.1. Blockade of the port of destination245
  • 38.4.2. “Or otherwise prevention of navigation with the vessel”248
  • 38.5. Consequences250
  • 39. After the commencement of the voyage251
  • 39.1. Time of occurrence252
  • 39.2. Distance Freight253
  • Chapter 12257
  • Unexpected circumstances and the necessity for repairs to the vessel257
  • 40. Introductory remarks257
  • 41. The divergence of views regarding rescission (ipanaxorisi) and termination (kataggelia) in the Greek theory258
  • 41.1. Criticism and the preferred view262
  • 42. The nature of the events268
  • 42.1. Repairs and temporary interruption of the voyage271
  • 42.2. Excessive length of the impediment273
  • 43. Consequences276
  • 44. Introductory remarks277
  • Chapter 13277
  • Accidental loss of the goods prior or after the loading or after the receipt of goods for loading or after the commencement of the voyage277
  • 45. Accidental loss of the goods prior to the receipt or prior to the loading277
  • 46. Accidental loss of the goods after the receipt or after the loading and before the sailing of the vessel281
  • 47. Delivery of new cargo281
  • 48. Accidental loss after the commencement of the voyage286
  • Chapter 14288
  • Rights and liabilities of the parties in case of an accidental discharge of the charter288
  • 49. Introductory remarks288
  • 50. The dissolution of the contract at the preliminary voyage 288
  • 51. Expenses after the dissolution of the contract291
  • Chapter 15293
  • Rights and obligations of the owner after the dissolution of the charter293
  • 52. Introductory remarks293
  • 53. The diligence of the prudent owner293
  • 54. The owner is entitled and obliged to send, store, pledge or sell the cargo 297
  • 55. General average and contribution299
  • 56. English Law299
  • 57. American Law300
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY301
  • A. BOOKS, ARTICLES and MONOGRAPHS301
  • B. CASE LAW313
  • INDEX335
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